Noise generated by railway traffic is one of the most important source of annoyance which has to be reduced in the interest of safeguarding the environment. The European railway networks must be capable to create new infrastructures increasing their performance and traffic, as well as the internal comfort and the environmental compatibility, especially considering the high speed and very high-speed railway lines. The primary objective of the researchers and planners is to develop methodologies as well as design and evaluation tools for railway noise barriers made for this type of infrastructure, as they cannot be designed using the same criteria as roadway noise barriers. Theoretical modelling will be analysed and adapted to take into account the influence of certain parameters such as shape, materials, location of barriers. The achievement of this objective will stimulate innovation and speed up the industrialisation process for more efficient solutions and to reduce development costs, and will help to promote European harmonization and standardization processes.